“Alea iacta est.”
— Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (63 BC – 14 AD) as he crossed the Rubicon in 49 B.C. It means, “The die is cast.” By crossing the river with his army — against Roman law — Caesar guaranteed a head-on confrontation with the overconfident Roman ruler Pompey. Outnumbered, Caesar was presented with the choice: win or die. Thus the origin of the English word “Rubicon”: a bounding or limiting line; especially one that when crossed commits a person irrevocably.